Trump Wins Trade War As Global Markets Plummet

It is early July, well before this article goes online, yet the landscape is pretty clear from where I stand. The U.S. and China both raised tariffs on $34 billion worth of goods Friday, July 6. This did not deter the S&P 500 from continuing its charge up to the January 26 all-time high. To boot, unemployment is historically low and the Fed is set to raise rates twice before the year ends – all this amidst a stealth discretionary spending recession.

So, how about that trade war? Let’s recap. Most folks would agree that the free trade of goods would be best for all concerned. Goods would be less expensive and those that could not compete on price would do so on quality, leading to a beneficial improvement of goods. All is well and good until protectionism and nationalism rear their ugly heads. Some nations have goods that find it difficult to compete on the basis of price and/or quality. Globally, world leaders of such nations are unapologetic in pursuing their nation’s interests at the expense of others. In trying to avoid the image of the ugly American, we have often placed ourselves at a disadvantage. Nowhere is this more evident than in trade were our trading partners often have a clear advantage.

U.S. Census Data shows that we have a trade deficit with every trading region except for South and Central America and Australia/Oceania. At only $33.14 and $14.38 billion, respectively, the last four years and a combined trade of $310.44 billion this pales in comparison with the deficit for the rest of the world, -$844.66 billion, whose combined trade is $3.578 trillion. Below are 2014-2017 averages for most of the world in billions:
Canada: -$20.01
European Union: -$149.61
Asia: -$547.49
Africa: -$2.60

China is a case in point. Aware of the huge financial benefit that comes with their 1.38 billion consumers, they extract huge concessions from their trading partners, including the U.S. When they have not barred certain U.S. business sectors, they restrict or regulate business, place tariffs on goods, or coerce intellectual property release. Note this goes one way; there is no intellectual property sharing.

These noncompetitive business practices are not fair, but until now, U.S. companies have accepted them without much push back as the cost of doing business there. That is until Trump. What Chinese leaders need to realize is that they are not in a good bargaining position and the longer they hold out the more harm will come to their economy.

Here is why. Leaders of the government-run economy are well aware of their history and realize the huge Chinese population is not going to put up with poor conditions forever. To keep discontent at bay, they have a policy of inflated economic growth. According to Trading Economics, they have averaged 11.7% GDP growth for the past 10 years but chinks in their armor are showing. From the 2010-2011 heyday, where GDP grew 19% and 24%, growth has dropped steadily and sometimes precipitously. It was 5.56% and 1.14% in 2015 and 2016, respectively. Little wonder that worried central government figures have made a big push since then for increasing their global exports, including those to the U.S., resulting in a resumption of GDP growth to 9.35% in 2017. The prospect of increased tariffs, which would make their goods less competitive, runs afoul of those plans. China’s economy is struggling and their stock market is testament to that. The smaller Shenzhen composite moved into bear market territory in February and the Shanghai composite closed in bear territory on Tuesday, June 27. The indexes went as low as -26.5% and -25.0 on July 5 but have recently recovered to -22.5 and -21.2%, respectively, as global markets have climbed in tandem with U.S. markets. That is still in bear market territory, which will curtail much need foreign investment. Meanwhile, U.S. GDP is growing steadily, the economy seems to be healthy, and the stock market is nearing new heights. Trump can ratchet up the tariff game longer knowing he has more economic wiggle room. Moreover, he can inflict more pain to the Chinese economy than they can to ours.

To see why, let’s look at the trade numbers. The trade deficit with China has averaged -$358.68 billion the last four years in a rising trend. While U.S. exports have vacillated between $110-129 billion since 2012, Chinese imports have steadily increased from $315 to 375 billion. Last year the deficit was -$375.58 billion, of which $129.89 billion were U.S. exports to China and $505.47 billion were U.S. Chinese imports. Not only is trade unbalanced, so are tariffs. Prior to this year, U.S. tariffs on Chinese agricultural and non-agricultural goods were 2.5% and 2.9%, respectively, while Chinese tariffs on U.S. goods were 9.7% and 5% for the same. True, these had been going down from a 14.1% average prior to 2001 when China joined the World Trade Organization but that was part of the price and tariffs are much higher for some industries.

Artificial Intelligence and the Economy in the 21st Century

Artificial intelligence is a driving business force in this fast changing 21st century. AI is no longer an implausible futuristic vision, but a stark reality that is disrupting businesses worldwide. In the 21st century, companies are forced to rethink traditional market approaches and become more service – centric in order to remain relevant. Organizations such as Uber and air are perfect examples of 21st century enterprises. The application on the demand, always on technology that propel agility, simplicity, flexibility, and lean operators with customer experience at the core of their actions enabled new dawn of large or small organizations to leverage on the benefits of Artificial intelligence (A1) to succeed in the 21st century. Companies are gradually embracing A1 and its increasingly influence every aspect of business, especially consumer technology.

According to IDC, the worldwide market for cognitive systems, content analytics, and discovery software is expected to accelerate through 2020. As a result, there are speculations regarding AI growing role and whether that might adversely affect the job market.However, the purpose of automation is not to replace humans or dehumanization, but to enhance and augment human functions for improved productivity and efficiency.

The main key benefits of artificial intelligence are stated as follows:

1.Agility from orchestration: by harnessing the power of service integration and Develops, an agile and experience-oriented business, with programmable infrastructure, application releases, and catalog-based services, can be created.

2. Simplicity from autonomics: artificial and predictive analytics will self-healing, self-service, and proactive support, while minimizing waste and establishing elasticity. This will simplify enterprise system workings and enable up-place workforce to handle higher level tasks.

3. Being lean through automation: Automating repetitive tasks will result in waste reduction, workforce optimization, and efficiency point and improvements.

Despite the above disadvantages of AI, it will take several decades before AI will actually be replacing human intelligence. The horror scenarios of AI entities taking over the planet and killing off the human race is still part of science fiction. Although several futurologists predict the possibility of transferring the human mind into a body of a robot to seek immortality in 2050.

The combination of AI and nanotechnology will also make technological breakthroughs in the fields of medicine, energy, and production systems. The combination of AI and nanotechnology applied in solar panels will cause the price of renewable sources of energy to drop dramatically starting in 2025.

The question haunting many is related to the horror scenarios in which killer AI robots start hunting down humans to be killed. These scenarios have been made popular by Hollywood blockbuster movies like the Terminator. Although AI will be beneficial for the human race, it needs to be controlled. Without proper control mechanisms and protocols, AI robots might become hostile although it a highly unlikely scenario. According to Michio Kaku, AI robots will be truly beneficial for the human race. However, in the long term, AI robots must be controlled with various inbuilt mechanisms to prevent them from becoming too independent and autonomous with becoming hostile towards humans as a real possible future scenario.

The Real State Of the Union

With the onslaught of Global Warming striking destruction, and fear the United States faces ever greater challenges with each passing month. The severity of weather patterns all around the globe has only intensified the urgency that humanity is facing the most crucial point in our history. The forces of denial have already hastened the point of no return. With the clock ticking and time running out it is essential that cooler heads prevail. Yet, those climate change deniers cling to their convictions that all is well and good. But, as the wrath of nature rocks a splintered nation millions are continually thrown into an inferno of hopelessness and despair.

Today, the scientific community has sounded the alarm that the planet has at the most 12 years remaining before irreversible damage is done to all life forms all around the globe. As we are seeing right now with the scorching heat and violent storms that continue to annihilate, homes, businesses, lives and livelihoods right here in the US while other parts of the world face one catastrophe after another are all reminders that climate change is one of the most severe threats to all life. The time is now and we had better act to reduce and eliminate the effects of what fossil fuel has and is doing to our world before it really is too late.

With the advent of hurricane season coinciding with the severity and frequency of violent tornadoes and flash floods through-out the mid west and central United States the billions of dollars in damage with an already crippling economy makes it clear that decisive action is needed now to negate the root causes that has placed the United States in such great peril. Not only has our continued use of fossil fuel fueled the catastrophic weather patterns that have caused the greatest desalination point in the worlds oceans but the economic policies of not only the Trump Administration but past administrations have drastically increased the number of Americans from ever achieving the American Dream.

While the media keeps focusing on how well the economy is doing, but underneath this facade of all is well and good lies a mounting avalanche of an economic catastrophe that would make the financial crisis of 2008 look like a picnic. News that isn’t reported, I bet for obvious reasons, is a far cry from what is actually reported by the main stream media. In truth there are several facts that emphatically state quite the contrary to what the media keeps reporting about the state of the US economy. When there are over 137 million Americans faced with acute financial hardship due to medical bills with more Americans every month declaring bankruptcy due to the lack of medical coverage and the high cost of medical care is a sure sign this country needs Medicare For All.

This is just the start of the financial crack in our fragile economy. A crack that is only getting wider and pretty soon our whole economy will come crashing down on an unsuspecting public. All because the media is either oblivious to the facts or are intentionally steering the public away from the real state of our economy. With the retail industry continuing it’s decline is more evident each week when there where over 6,000 stores that closed in the first half of this year alone. More closures continue to showcase the disturbing signs that all is not well and good in the American economy.

Today, 50% of our population can’t meet their basic needs like food, shelter, clean fresh water and just about everything essential for day to day living. The disposable incomes for over 80% of the population is totally insufficient to meet today’s cost of living. The media keeps reminding us that we have a very low unemployment number but what they fail to report is that the United States has over 100 million Americans that don’t have jobs at all. Our once strong manufacturing base has only withered and died on the vine of all the corporate shifts to out source American jobs over seas. Today’s farmers are going bankrupt at a rate higher than they were in the 1970′s. Consumer spending has dropped to an all time low. All of this just adds another dimension to the nations critical condition.

When we add the Trumps tariff wars has only escalated and exasperated the crippling effects of our whole economic future. More to the point is the fact that the future is really in our hands but we must act with decisive action now, not latter, if we are going to not only survive but prosper. There are ways to do just that but we first have to realize just how bad things have gotten and use a plan of direction that details solutions to the many urgent crisis of our times. That plan of direction is what National Economic Reform’s Ten Articles of Confederation and the National Economic Security Reformation Act details. And when they are both implemented this nation and the world will become solidified in a much brighter future for all.

How Trump’s Trade War Will Hurt You

Trump followed through on one of his campaign promises by starting a trade war with our trading partners to help reduce our enormous trade deficits. The first shots fired in this war are tariffs on steel and aluminum imports in an attempt to help American steel and aluminum producers.

As with most wars, this one will have unintended consequences that will actually hurt the people it’s intended to help and make the problem worse. Trump’s presumed intention is to help the American economy by balancing the trade deficits, protect American companies and save American manufacturing jobs. In practice, a tariff on imports will make all three of these problems worse for these reasons:

American Manufacturers Will Be Less Competitive

If you want to make American manufacturers more competitive, then your aim should be to lower their costs of production. Since aluminum and steel are used as a raw material in the production of many manufactured goods, this tariff is crippling. Any company that uses aluminum or steel (cars, airplanes, appliances, construction) now has to pay more in order to produce their product. Many of these companies are hanging on by a thread trying to compete with lower cost areas of the world. Now their costs just went up even more and many will go out of business as a result.

American Steel and Aluminum Producers lose their American customers

While I am sure somewhere in Trump’s brain he thinks he is helping American Steel and Aluminum producers, he is actually hurting them. Even though these producers will see higher prices for their products, they will suffer because THEIR customers – the manufacturers that use steel and aluminum – will go out of business. Obviously, not all of them will go out of business, but even the healthier companies will scale back their business due to lower sales. Why will their sales be lower? That brings us to the final point…

Consumers pay more and lose their jobs

Because the costs of production for these American manufacturing companies will increase, many will have no choice but to increase the price of their products. Consumers, especially American consumers, don’t like higher prices. Most won’t know why prices went up but they will speak with their wallets by purchasing fewer of these products. As a result, American manufacturers will experience lower sales.

What happens when a company’s sales decline? Often, they lay some workers. If you’re afraid that robotics and machines are replacing humans jobs, wait until you see how fast those jobs disappear in a struggling economy with declining revenue.

And that is the irony of this bone-headed Trump move: he thinks he is helping Americans “win” again, but he is actually giving them higher prices and a pink slip.

Why Money Is Failing

Anything invented by man has a short life before it fades away, and money is no exception. Invented for trade and then the wealth of those who made it their god they become so attached that it occupies their mind constantly. That means they have no room for listening to the Spirit voice within them, and they suffer the consequences. As their wealth grows many die horrible deaths from incurable diseases, suicide, or other.

The world’s economic future is now dire as manipulation of currencies and such take priorities. Wars are about money and power and we are rapidly coming to a major confrontation that will see the planet change as never before.

Already with climate change, scarcity of water, draught, famine, disease, and other things mounting pressure on countries and their economy the last thing it required was a war on trade. How will that play out in the light of the other problems the world faces?

The only place money is generated is from the environment. Whether its crops replacing forests, or animals targeted for food or pleasure, nothing about it is good for the planet. Mining minerals, oil, gas, and other things is depleting the air of oxygen while causing CO2 to dominate the atmosphere.

Overfishing of oceans and the inexcusable destruction of unwanted species is horrendous. The wastage of excesses is disgusting while the extinction of species of animals and plants the benefit of which is not yet understood is horrifying. Yet man continues on his destruction because he does not know and possibly cannot now live without money.

While its initial purpose was trade it has become so entrenched in our lives that we are asked to pay for just about everything we depend on to survive. That forces everyone to earn it or come by it in some other way. So how long can we survive with it?

The reality it that countries are already so corrupt that the governments are syphoning off the profits and people are starving. This is seen in several place as the rest of the world watches. In some regions so-called civil wars rage on as populations flee while seeking refuge and safety. As they go many of their numbers fall and die.

Money is the root of corruption and criminality and, like religion, it is so entrenched in the human psyche that nothing short of complete annihilation of the species will end it. That is rapidly coming to fruition as the planet struggles to survive, people die in their millions, but the birth rate overtakes the numbers of deaths by millions more. That is why money is failing as it’s a death sentence humans have inflicted upon themselves.

The Last Days Of America

In studying American history one can conclude that during the darkest hours of the American Revolution there had to have been Divine intervention that guided General Washington to persevere and eventually triumph in securing victory for the United States. In many instances when all hope seemed to be lost the revolution was saved not only by the shrewd and calculating determination of Washington but a higher power that enabled the United States to overcome adversity under fire.

In the ensuing years much has changed since our humble beginning. That Divine intervention that steadied the hands of our Founding Fathers has been cast aside by the greed of man. One has to wonder though about human nature. Is it human nature once people are in a position of power to try and gain more control of that power? And, does power always corrupt the individual in authority considering the times of today? Sad to say in too many instances for over 45 years we have been witness to unparallel corruption in our governmental officials. The Divine guidance has been lost in obscurity and this nation continues to flounder in troubled waters.

The integrity and unselfish character of Washington helped forge what America became. Other men like Thomas Jefferson, Ben Franklin and John Adams embodied the true greatness of a new nation. As we near the end of the second decade of the 21st century Americas greatness has withered on that vine of lost opportunities. From the last 148 years of disingenuous policies and without the slightest concern for the American public the erosion of Americas greatness is almost complete. The blindness of too many to see and the willingness to accept what is continues to accelerate the U.S. departure from greatness to mediocrity.

We have forsaken this nation. Too many of our rights have been stripped away. They have been turned into privileges that we always have to pay. This nation has truly lost it’s way. The individuals we choose to represent us too many times we have chosen unwisely. And, too many times those that could make a difference have always been denied the opportunity to do so.

By all indications have pointed to the fact that the last days of America are upon us. When we have an Administration and too many members of Congress incapable of altering the course of this nation is the reality we face today. Gone are the character and integrity that typified the moral compass this nation had over 200 years ago.

Like all great nations through-out history they have never lasted. A striking parallel between the great power of Ancient Rome is the fact that for a long time Rome was a Democracy, that is up until the time of Julius Caesar. It was Julius Caesar though that established a prime example of political rule of a charismatic strongman whose rationale is the need to rule by force, establishing a violent social order and have a regime involving a strong military role in government. We can see a distinct correlation between Julius Caesar and one Donald Trump. When Julius Caesar came into power was the start of the decline of the Roman Empire.

The similarities between both men is too apparent to ignore. And if Trump remains in power the hand writing is on the wall, sort of speaking, that the last days of America are all readily upon us. We the people have to understand that history does repeat with outcomes very similar to the past. That is unless we have the courage to recognize how we can change the course this nation is on. There is a way to do so. But, the resolve to put in play the reforms to alter the course this nation is on has yet to be displayed.

The Business Model and Today’s Economy – A Warning to Universities and Investors

As spring is upon us, this is the time deans and higher education vice presidents across the land embark on their yearly budget exercise. Given the rosy economic scenario painted by improving wages, job reports and corporate profits, it would not be out-of-place to start dreaming of expanding their own little circles and propose larger budgets and increased hiring for their respective units – what Warren Buffett has dubbed the institutional imperative. My warning: beware!

As an academician, I have often heard high-ranking officials espouse how public universities should be run using a business model. My own university president is a strong proponent of the idea. The problem is that universities are saddled with challenges most companies don’t have to deal with. For example, let us suppose that demand for your company’s product goes down. To keep your company viable and responsible to stockholders you will cut down on production. Fewer sales means less personnel will be needed leading to workforce reductions. Despite lower revenue, the bottom line is kept steady by lowering expenses for materials and personnel.

Let’s look at what happens at a university. Let’s suppose demand for your product, classes, goes down – i.e., fewer students are enrolled. The cost of materials to run a class is minimal as compared to personnel and physical plant costs. You can’t shut down buildings so your only recourse is personnel reductions. Here is a problem corporations don’t have. They never have a case where the few remaining clients demand that the company put out as much product as before the reduction in demand. But if you have a class of 40 reduced to 30 or even 20 students the university cannot cancel it. These students registered for the class well in advance, before the semester even began. Their schedules and even graduation are predicated on it. If the class does not make, students will be in an uproar and in this day and age they have no trouble letting the world know – online. As the news become viral, the university will gain a bad reputation. It will affect future enrollment. Any whisper of lower enrollment sends chills down high administrator’s backs.

Here is another difference between corporations and higher education providers. Corporation hires are more fungible. If you let go someone all you need is several weeks’ notice. Not so for academia. You may let go of staff personnel that way but instructors are on an academic year contract. University administrators may decide not to renew a contract for a non-tenured instructor after the academic year but they cannot terminate during. That means hiring and budget decisions have to be made well in advance.

Back in 2007 I was in the middle of this dilemma. I was the founder and Chair of the Idaho State University Budget Committee. Our mandate, as I saw it, was to keep abreast of economic developments so we could best advise administrators of “hiccups” leading to reductions in state allocations to higher education. Once those came about, we would provide advice on budget allocations to programs and hiring. Academic hires have to be done months ahead of time so timely input meant looking ahead at least six months. It was within that time frame I warned our higher administration of the coming economic slowdown and real estate problems at the epicenter of the Financial Crisis. That message went unheeded at the time so, for the next couple of years, our committee was saddled with helping the administration muddle through ever diminishing budgets.

The unemployment rate at the time of my warning in 2007 was 4.4%, wages increased by 0.3% for the month and 4.4% for the year, and S&P 500 profits were up 16% for the year. GDP growth was pegged at 3%. Sound familiar? There was plenty of reason to be optimistic and yet, the future did not play out that way. The same will happen this year, although the main factors behind the economic stall will be different.

There is a financial storm developing. This time around, the low-pressure front will be due to demographic forces resulting in a decrease in spending from the 46-50 age group, a group dubbed the peak spenders. There will be a prolonged and marked decrease in consumer spending that will lead to a protracted economic downturn starting this year and lasting as long as 2023.

State general accounts will dwindle as sales tax revenues drop and a rise in unemployment leads to lower personal tax revenues. These are the two main pillars filling state coffers. The two others are real estate and corporate taxes. While real estate tax revenue will remain steady, corporate tax revenue will mirror plummeting corporate profits. The bottom line is that state support for public universities will take a cut and once again these institutions will have the difficult task of managing their budgets by reducing personnel. This is, therefore, no time to be dreaming about expanding departments, but instead, a time of planning for retrenchment.

Administrators should shun the temptation to pass down the buck and use university reserves to meet the immediate challenge. Next year will be no better. In fact, this downhill process will continue to get worse, and as I mentioned above, will last until 2023. University officials will be forced to face the music at some point in time so they might as well brainstorm and come up with a 5- or 6-year plan to deal with the malaise.

The warning goes double for those invested in the stock market. The same forces at work within state finances will also hobble our economy and wreak havoc on corporate profits and prices. Stock portfolios will take a substantial hit. My advice is to heed the current stock market warning. We just went through a correction, but these are only birth pangs of the financial storm ahead. The wise will use any uptick as an opportunity to whittle down stock holdings. There will be many who will mock me now, but when the brunt of the tempest comes you will want to be totally out of the stock market.

That Higher Plateau

When nobody listens in a time where temperatures keep rising and tempers flare shows that mankind is no where near capable of healing the wounds inflicted by mortal men. Today, the world is ruled by the unquenchable thirst for power, control, and wealth by those who are blinded by their own greed. When on one listens to reasoning or logic, when no one responds with compassion in times of crisis, and when no one who could make a difference in so many lives through acts of kindness, benevolence and humanity, is the reality of our times.

The constant evolving of technologies that could be used for the betterment of man still is to often delayed, cost prohibitive, hoarded, and otherwise used for the destructive side of man. The greed of some knows no bounds. Through-out history mankind has been both the beneficiaries of innovative technologies and have been casualties of the way man has misused those technologies. Great inventions that have changed the shape of the world and other inventions that have been used not for the greater good of mankind but to inflame the world for selfish gain.

Someone once said that everyone at some point in their life has something so profound to say, write or create that would astound the world. Their ability to convey thoughts and expressions that would elevate all of mankind to a higher plateau are so often not seen, read or heard. Fallen on the deaf ears and blind eyes of those who stand to loose their tight grip on the status-quo is much the reality of today. Too often people are caught in the whirlwind of everyday existence while the power players purposely keep those who shown an authority to improve the status-quo from ever reaching the public. And, the public’s fixation that only people with wealth or in positions of power are the only ones capable of such profound works continues to prevent humanity from reaching that higher plateau.

Sadly, today the world is being denied the instruments in which our lives and livelihoods would be enriched. Purposely denied by a power elite that cares not for the public’s welfare. For years it has been their overwhelming desire to reap more power, control and wealth that has scuttled any attempt by those persons who through their own volition created that something and if given the chance would benefit all of mankind.

Today, so few are listening or seeing the ways in which humanity can rise to that higher plateau. This, when we have a media and too many in government unwilling and incapable of seeing just what certain people are trying to do. And, if only we had access or been able to listen to those individuals who have created the means to enrich our lives our world would be a much better place had we been able to do so.

As it stands today with the world filled with chaos too much of our attention is focused not on those individuals who have that something so important and relevant but on the trivialities of meaningless legislation, aka the boarder wall or some other government policy that supercedes any endeavor that would allow more of the public to be informed that there really is a better way for us all to reach that higher plateau.

In Today’s Commercialized World, Money Is Everything – The Rich Can Even Afford To Buy Better Genes

One afternoon, after a grueling math exam, Ayomah’s math teacher, the old and lean Mr. Jacksotto Tobacco, smoking a thin hand-rolled cigarette, sat them together to recount a news story he’d read from a newspaper. It was a heart-warming piece of news. Between puffs on his cigarette, he narrated to the class how, a thirty year-old woman gave birth to a baby free of her family’s curse of Alzheimer’s disease – thanks to the wonders of medical science. To his young mind, it was hard not to feel the joy of the baby’s family, or the hope of the many others who feel helpless by their genetic inheritance.

The breakthrough, according to Mr. Tobacco, occurred when doctors in Chicago, in the US, applied genetic tests to batches of human eggs, helping the woman to have a baby free of her family’s early Alzheimer’s disease. According to him, without such intervention, the baby would have had a 50-50 odds of becoming senile by the time she was 40. But he had a terrible feeling as he thought about the implication of this seemingly wonderful evolution of medical engineering. Before long, the rich will be able to buy not only better education for their kids but also better genes! This thought was especially troubling for someone who didn’t know his father’s whereabouts, and who was being raised by a struggling single parent.

As a child, Ayomah was taught this in school: given a chance between being rich and being smart one should always choose the latter, for smart people will always be able to find a way to get rich and foolish people could easily lose the wealth someone else had worked so hard to accumulate on their behalf. This simple proposition was powerful for those of us growing up with less and whose hopes were derived from the knowledge that if even poor, talented individuals will have a shot in an otherwise unequal world. But after listening to Mr. Tobacco’s story, it turned out that money will buy smarts, too! After the class was over, Ayomah left home thinking that, the prospects for his family, which was already daunting, will, in the future, become almost hopeless. He couldn’t have narrated what he heard from Mr. Tobacco to his Mama. She would be crestfallen.

Ayomah had a great story to tell, he decided to put it in the form of a book. He failed to publish it because he was restricted by money. Later on, he managed to get some money, published the book but yet another challenge – he is unable to advertise it. He is again restricted by money. He thinks of abandoning the whole idea of writing altogether and start a business. Here too, he was restricted by money. He finally decided to go back to school to acquire marketable skills. Hoping that after his graduation he will be able to find a good job. Here too, he was required to first pay some tuition in order to be accepted into that institution. He got restricted again by money.

How A Successful Tourism Industry Led to Globalization

Most of us have heard the word “globalization” widely used in a variety of contexts over the past few years. But what is the actual definition of this commonly used term? Merriam-Webster defines globalization as, “The act or process of globalizing: the state of being globalized; especially: the development of an increasingly integrated global economy marked especially by free trade, free flow of capital, and the tapping of cheaper foreign labor markets.” Now that we’ve established the true definition of globalization, it’s probably easy to see how it plays a vital role in the tourism industry. After all, people visiting other countries would naturally be engaging in globalization as they purchase products and services in their travels. But what may not be as obvious is how successful tourism led to globalization. That is the topic we’ll explore in this blog.

Although it’s hard to say exactly when the tourism industry began, many historians would agree that it probably started when well-to-do citizens of ancient Rome began spending their summers in other parts of the region to escape the hustle and bustle of what was then (and is, even now) the metropolis of Rome. That would mean that tourism is, at the very least, about 2,000 years old. But the end of the Roman Empire also meant the end of tourism, albeit only for a few hundred years, as unrest in that region made travel of any sort a risky proposition at best. A few hundred years later, during medieval times, the tourism industry experienced a rebirth when large groups of people began to make holy pilgrimages. That meant that those people needed places to eat and sleep along the way. Another few hundred years later, people began to travel for other reasons – such as to improve their health and to view art, architecture, and visit historic locations. It was at this time, during the Industrial Revolution, when the tourism industry began to take the familiar form that we know today. Methods of transportation were developed, as were hotels and restaurants, to cater to tourists. Finally, beginning in the 1960s, as aircraft and ocean liners became more commonplace and more affordable for the masses, tourism became a global industry. In our day and age, if you have the time and the money, you can arrange to travel, quite literally, anywhere on the planet.

And, as it turns out, many people DO have the time and the money. According to The Statistics Portal, between the years of 2006 and 2017, the travel and tourism industry contributed $8.27 trillion dollars to the global economy. The greatest contributors include North America, the European Union, and North East Asia. While these regions continue to lead the tourism charge, other less-likely countries are making their own mark in the industry, undoubtedly due to the lucrative possibilities that tourism brings with it. Some of the most notable are African countries, such as Namibia, Zambia and Angola, to name a few.

In the KOF Globalization Index of the 100 Most Globalized Countries in 2017, it should come as no surprise that leading the list are many EU countries, including Netherlands, Belgium, Austria, Switzerland, Denmark, Sweden, France, and others. Also on the list – although further down than the EU countries – are Canada and the U.S. The KOF Index of Globalization takes into account three key indicators: economic, social and political. They define globalization as, “… the process of creating networks of connections among actors at multi-continental distances, mediated through a variety of flows including people, information and ideas, capital and goods.” While there’s no doubt about the economic impact that tourism has on the global scale, the other indicators of globalization are harder to measure – namely the social and political influences that the tourism industry brings to the global stage. But if we measure the impact of tourism on globalization with regard to the flow of people, information and ideas, as well as capital and goods, we can say with a certain level of certainty that the success of the tourism industry has more than likely led the way – both directly and indirectly – to globalization.